Board games are still big business. Even before the pandemic limited entertainment options, the board game industry already accounted for $1.8 billion of sales in 2013 – or almost 10% of the entire toy market in the United States. In the first half of 2020’s lockdown, Hasbro reported a 4% increase in gaming revenue over the same six month period in 2019. The global board game market is projected to grow to over $20 billion by 2025, and the ubiquity of online retail has made board games a truly global industry. And, digitization of board games (making them available on smartphones and tablets) has only increased the popularity and accessibility of these products for mainstream consumers.
Although the board game market is not as big as video games, board games have significantly lower development costs and can be designed without specialized knowledge like graphic design, coding, etc. Like writing a book, anyone can do it, so long as they come up with a good concept, it is entertaining, and the execution works. For example, one of the most popular games that has made millions of dollars is Cards Against Humanity. An R-rated version of Apples of Apples, the design and concept is extraordinarily simple – it consists of questions or concepts on black cards, and words or sentences to create an absurd/funny/offensive response on the white cards. Yet the concept was so well-executed and entertaining that it became an instant hit.
The relative simplicity of board game design however poses a host of unique legal issues. As a developer, you may have already been threatened with legal action, or worse, have had to defend yourself from a lawsuit. Or, perhaps you are considering legal action against a blatant copy of your original idea. Protecting your concepts and business requires an understanding of the three primary forms of intellectual property protections: copyright, trademark, and patent law. So what do you need? As always, the answer is “it depends.”
Intuitively, board games should enjoy some sort of copyright protection. After all, they consist of booklets, printed boards, and other materials not dissimilar from literary works. As a general rule, the rules, boards, artwork, and other aesthetic or literary elements to a game are copyrightable and protected as such. These protected elements are referred to as the “theme” of the game. Distinct from the “theme” of the game are the game mechanics, which cannot be copyrighted. “Game mechanics” is the actual gameplay – which can be as simple as roll the dice and move a token. The United States Copyright Act codifies this concept and expressly states that copyright protection does not extend to “any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work.” 17 USC 102(b). As an example, the “Monopoly” name, mascot, property names, and token designs would all likely be protected under copyright law. However, the game play concept itself – that is moving around the board, buying up properties, and charging rent to other players who land there – is not. There is no bright line rule however, especially given the increased complexity of board games and card games, and each situation will be driven by its own unique factors.
Trademark protection exists chiefly to prevent customer confusion and to protect the integrity of a brand. In the board game context, trademark will primarily protect the name of the game, but can also protect unique “trade dress” elements that constitute unique game board designs, cards, and tokens. For example, in addition to owning the trademark for “Monopoly,” Hasbro also registered recognizable designs from the game, including the railroad symbol, the “jail” and “go to jail” images, and the layout of the “Monopoly” game money. As an aside, the actual status of the “Monopoly” trademark is unsettled, as following years of legal proceedings, a 1983 appellate court case decided that “Monopoly” had become a generic terms and no longer was associated with the source publisher, Parker Brothers. Congress responded to the ruling by amending the Lanham Act to clarify that purchaser motivation is not the test and that a mark can only be deemed generic when its “primary significance” to the general public is the generic description of particular goods or services.
Patents are most often associated with scientific discoveries and mechanical devices. In the board game context, a patent may be available to protect a game’s unique mechanics. Again, we are not talking about general methods of play here, but rather something truly unique. A so-called utility patent could be available if the mechanics meet the unique and non-obvious test. However, patent protection is fairly expensive to obtain and to police, so while patent protection may be available, it may not be practical. Also, any sort of public disclosure, such as playtesting, may defeat patent claims. “Monopoly” was actually patented in 1935 by Parker Brothers, with the description including the rules, the “apparatus of a board game consisting of a continuous path around the board,” and other claims, including the Chance and Community Chest cards. The patent has little value however, as it expires in 20 years, and is so specific that it likely limits the protective scope of the patent itself.
Other Intellectual Property Concerns
The most two common questions designers ask are: (1) I am making a game; how can I prevent someone from copying it? and (2) I am making a game that is similar to X; how do I avoid getting in trouble for copying? While you may have taken steps to protect your intellectual property, the fact is that board games are especially vulnerable to knockoffs and plagiarism. The low development cost and lack of “trade secret” type secret components make it simple for an unscrupulous developer to simply take a game, rebrand it, and release it as their own. International law may even become an issue if an overseas company takes and repurposes your idea. By hiring an attorney as part of your team, you can ensure that you have taken the right steps to obtain copyright protection for your rules, art, etc., and that you have properly registered your trademarks. An attorney can also ensure that any contractors – such as artists – properly assign all rights back to the game developer through “work for hire” agreements. Licensing agreements with any publisher must also delineate the rights and responsibilities of all parties. Royalties and assignments must be fair, clear, and definite. If you have a co-designer or a business partner, you must absolutely have a business agreement before your idea starts making money, so there are no surprises or hard feelings. If there are copyright concerns or knockoffs, a DMCA takedown notice or demand letter is often an effective tool to dissuade would-be thieves. Conversely, if you are receive a takedown notice or demand from another designer, you need to have an effective and prepared attorney ready to respond.
Contact Artaev at Law PLLC to set up your initial consultation. We are Michigan’s gaming law firm and we specialize in the unique concerns that you may encounter as a game designer.
Disclaimer: This guide is for general informational and promotional purposes only. Nothing herein constitutes legal advice. Every situation is different and faces its own unique set of challenges. Do not take any action or sign any contract until you have obtained specific guidance from a qualified professional.
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